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gamesThe Total Simulation Series Games

The Total Simulation Series is a line of interactive 3D offline and massively multi-player online PC and MAC games that includes a combat flight simulator, tank simulator and other vehicles from World War I through the end of World War II.

gamesNew Flight Models

By Robert, Grumpy & Bollok
All made possible by Bcamel (creator of the program used to model the airplanes), and Idunno (who has shared a vast amount of aerodynamical knowledge). Please visit the Warbirds forum for performance details of the new flightmodels. WarBirds FMs

--= Ki-43-II Hayabusa (Peregrine Falcon), "Oscar" =--
Full rehaul of the Ki-43-II flightmodel. This was a very maneuverable and fast turning Japanese fighter, very similar to the A6M3 Zero. See further down for details.

--= Ki-44-IIc Shôki (Demon), "Tojo" =--
Full rehaul of the Ki-44-IIc flightmodel. This fighter was different from other Japanese fighters in that it had small thin wings and was designed for speed rather than turning ability. See further down for details.

--= Fully revised hitmaps =--
The hitmaps for nearly all fighters were earlier in an awful state. The hitmaps have lately been retweaked one by one. In this update though the hitmaps have now been carefully redone for all fighters that were still awaiting to be corrected. Affected fighters: Brewster Buffalos, Polikarpov I-16, Macchis, Fokker D.XXI, MiG-3, Hawker Typhoons, P-39 Airacobras, J2M's, Ki-43, ki-44, Ki-61's & Ki-84.

--= Ki-27b "Nate" =--
A few minor corrections to the flightmodel.

--= Bf 110's =--
Slight increase to manual trim allowance.

--= Polikarpov I-16 "Ishak" =--
Landing gear brake efficiency reduced. The I-16 was reported to have quite poor brakes.

--= MiG-3 =--
Fuel tank system retweaked (93.8 gal fuselage tanks, 2x 39.6 gal wing tanks).

--= De Havilland Mosquitos =--
Wheel brakes tweaked so that the plane won't nose over as easily.

--= British early fighters =--
The .303 cal machine guns have all been set to the primary trigger. This since these early British fighters only used a single button to fire all guns at once. This fix affects the: Hurricane I, Hurricane I *87 octane, Sea Hurricane Ib, Spitfire I, Spitfire I *87 octane and Spitfire II.

--= Spitfire IXa =--
Now has the neg G's cutout performance like the Spitfire Vc. This since the Spitfire XIa also used the "Miss Shillings Orifice" quick fix for the carburetor, not the Bendix Stromberg carburetor like the Spitfire IXe.

The Ki-43-II was a Japanese land based fighter designed for superior maneuverability. It was light and had a good wingloading, fielding the Nakajima Ha-115-II radial engine capable of 1174 hp at 2800 m (9200 ft). This engine is quite similar to the Sakae 21 engine of the A6M3 "Zero", and in fact the Ki-43-II is very similar to the A6M3 in both speed, climb and turning performance. It has a low top speed for it's era, but has an excellent turning performance. It's dive performance is very poor so the Hayabusa will have a hard time catching Allied fighters diving out. The armament is also quite weak with only 2x 12.7 mm machine guns in the nose. That being said though at slow speeds it's an excellent fighter that can easily outmaneuver and out turn fighters of the same era, and it was quite liked by the Japanese army pilots. It's butterfly low drag flaps are also great for turn fighting.

The Shôki was very different from traditional Japanese fighter design in that it was built for speed, not turning performance. It's a large nosed fighter with small and very thin wings, fielding the strong Nakajma Ha-103 radial engine capable of nearly 1600 hp at 2100 m (~7000 ft). It could match a P-38G in top speed up to 5200 m (~17000 ft). The most impressive performance of this fighter is it's climb rate though, outmatching most fighters of WW2. It's armament is decent with 4x 12.7 mm machine guns and the short wingspan gives it a good roll rate. In contrast to the Ki-43, the Ki-44 is a very good diver and can sustain high speeds. It has no armored windscreen so machine gun fire from bombers can be dangerous. The thin small wings of the Ki-44 hampers it's turn radius at high speeds, but it's relatively light weight and strong engine still ensures that this bird is a decent turn fighter at slower speeds, especially in a spiral climbing turn. The low drag butterfly flaps also help improve it's turning performance. Overall the Ki-44-IIc Shôki is a quite competitive fighter, and had the Japanese Army pilots been better trained then it would have been a much more dangerous opponent for the U.S. pilots.

--= Nakajima Ki-27b Nate=--
The Ki-27b has been fully remodeled. While lacking top speed and firepower, it is the best turning ww2 monoplane in Warbirds. See further down for details.

--= Propeller wash =--
The Propwash of all remodeled flightmodels has been retweaked. The wind washing over control surfaces, as a result of the propeller spinning, has now been set on a basis of the engine's horsepower. Earlier all planes just used a few standard numbers for propwash. Hopefully the propwash should now be more accurate for each individual flightmodel. A high propwash from a strong engine means more reactive controls at especially lower speeds (For the elevator and rudder) while a low propwash results in less reactive controls. For a majority of the airplanes this change will be quite subtle and hardly noticable, while fighters with a very strongweak engine will see a slighty more notable change in reactiveness. The P-38's and Bf 110's will be most notable, and will now be more stable, as with better understanding of the propwash code Bollok found out that these twin engine fighters had been given a twice as high propwash value as they should have.

--= De Havilland Mosquito series =--
The Mosquitos were previously modeled with a stall speed based on Power OFF values. They have now been remodeled based on Power ON values like the other flightmodels. This results in a 14-15 mph lower stall speed. As such they will now be significantly more agile and able to keep a tighter turning radius.

The Ki-27 is a Japanese fighter that entered service a few years prior to ww2. It was used effectively against early Polikarpov i-16 fighters as it was a easily able to outturn them, and had a similar top speed until the i-16's got stronger engines. The Ki-27b is an extremely light monoplane fighter at 3523 lb with 200 square feet wings. As a comparison the A6M21 Zero weighs 5555 lb. The Nate has a weak engine though producing only a max power of 780 hp at 11480 ft. The drawbacks of this fighter is it's low top speed, fragile construction, non self sealing fuel tanks, it has no pilot armor and is very underarmed, fielding only two 7.7 mm machine guns in the nose. This Nakajima fighter's dive speed performance is also quite poor. The positive traits on the other hand is it's great maneuverability and outstanding turning perfomance, being able to out turn any competition in Warbirds. Owing to the Ki-27b's low weight it also holds an impressive climb rate for it's era.

The best way to fight the Ki-27b is by booming n zooming, and for fighters with cannons to even go HO against it. Just remember to veer off before you collide! Don't be a dweeb! Defensively diving out is also a good option, but it should be fairly easy to outrun the Nate if you keep a good situational awareness. As the Nakajima pilot you want to make it a close quarter turn fight. Enemy pilots who try to turn fight with you will be in for a rude awakening, especially those in a Zero, P-36C or Hurricane who put to much trust in their fighter's turning performance. The Ki-27b's good climb rate means that spiral climbing can also be used as an effective combat tactic. Just be aware that you might need to put a steady stream of bullets into an enemy plane before it goes down.

---== UPDATE FL2061: ZERSTÖRERS ==---
--= Messerschmitt Bf 110 Zerstörer series =--
Full rehaul of the Bf 110C-4 and Bf 110G-2. See further down for details.

--= Bf 109K-4's =--
The MW50 WEP has been reduced from 1.98 ata to 1.80 ata. This since the absolute majority of Bf 109K-4's used B4 fuel and not C3 fuel during their service. As such both Bf 109K-4's have had their engine setup rebuilt from the DB 605DC to the DB 605DB engine. This results in ~10 mph loss at Bst2, but the K-4's gain ~5 mph at lower altiudes, at Bst1, due to better low alt power output when using manifold pressures at 1.45 ata and lower with the DB 605DB engine.

--= Lavochkin series =--
* Liftco increased for a lower stall speed for all La5's and La7's. From 102 to 95 mph IAS at 7015 lb.
* Wing efficiency somewhat reduced to better simulate the effects of leading edge slats.
* Flaps liftco adjusted, slightly lowered at smaller angles.
* Small dragco increase for the La7's. From 413 to 411 mph top speed at 20 000 ft.
* Stall behaviour slightly harsher than before. All in all though the Lavochkins will turn a bit better now.

--= Hitmap fixes =--
Reworked hitmaps for the Focke Wulfs, Mustangs, Zeros, Hawks, Macchis, Lavochkins, Wildcats and Hellcat.

--= P-40F =--
Cockpit fix, the cockpit of the P-40F should be rendered at it's correct location with this update.

The Messerschmitt Bf 110 was designed as a twin engine long range fighter for escort missions, and as a fighter-bomber. In the invasions of Poland and France this Messerschmitt saw good success, but did not fare as well in it's fighter role in the Battle of Britain. The British fighters were simply faster and more agile. This plane can be very effective as a bomber-killer or fighter-bomber though, packing a heavy punch and able to carry payloads of 2x1000 kg bombs. Against Bf 110's, a bomber is in big trouble without escort. It is quite hard to dogfight nimbler opponents 1v1 with the Zerstörers, but they are not terrible at turning and if working in wingpairs the Bf 110's can actually be lethal by using Thach weave tactics, letting their big guns speak. Smart Bf 110 pilots would do well to enter the combat area at a higher altitude than their opponents, allowing them to pounce on bombers or avoid bad match-ups. If left unmolested, the Zerstörers can also be very effective at dive bombing and strafing fields.

--= Bf 110C-4 =--
The Bf 110C-4 is equipped with two Daimler-Benz DB 601B engines, which are the similar to the engines used by the Bf 109E-3, but with a different propgear ratio. It is armed with four 7.92 mm MG's and two 20 mm cannons. The Bf 110C-4 is not as nimble as the majority of early era fighters but is decently fast unless matched against Bf 109's or Spitfires. This Messerschmitt is best used as a bomber-killer or for jabo missions, but can be effective if boom n zooming through fürballs or going head on. The single rear-facing 7.92 mm MG can bring down an enemy if lucky, but shouldn't be counted on as an adequate defence.

--= Bf 110G-2 =--
The Bf 110G-2 packs a very heavy punch with two 30 mm cannons and two 20 mm cannons, and can be even better armed with two extra 20 mm cannons in a gunpod, air-to-air rockets or even a devastating 3.7 cm BK cannon. The engines are of the DB 605B model, with the same power output as the DB 605A engine used by the Bf 109G-6. The Bf 110G-2 is best used for killing bombers and for jabo missions, but enemy fighters need to beware as this Zerstörer will often kill with a single burst. It has a somewhat upgraded defensive armament with a double barreled 7.92 mm MG, the MG 81Z, but still shouldn't rely on this gun for defence. Contemporary fighters will usually have a higher top speed than this Messerchmitt so always keep a good situational awareness, and while smaller fighters will out turn the Bf 110G-2, it can actually turn inside many of the heavier late war fighters.

---== UPDATE FL2060: ADLERTAG ==---
--= Bf 109 series =--
After months of remodeling and getting this series as close to historical performance as possible, we are happy to finally announce the full rehaul of the whole Messerchmitt series. See further down for details.

--= Yakovlevs =--
Slight roll rate improvement for the Yak-9D, Yak-3 and Yak-9U.

--= Lavochkins =--
Slight wing efficiency reduction fix due to data found that leading edge slats increases induced drag when extended. This fix affects all the La5's and La7's.

--= Focke Wulfs =--
The Fw 190A-8, F-8 and D-9 have had their Bst2 renamed from "MW50 injection" to "MW50 injektion" with correct German spelling.

--= Macchis =--
The C.202's and C.205 have had minor fixes in dragco and engine setup from better data found while remodeling the Bf 109 series.

There were no other aces in ww2 with as many kills as the German Bf 109 pilots. The Messerschmitts were used at all fronts by the Germans and even scored a very impressive tally in Finnish hands against the Russians. There has been a lot of propaganda after the war where Allied countries claimed their fighters were far superior to their German adversaries, but make no mistake, the Bf 109 is a very potent fighter that has several outstanding traits, while also having some apparent drawbacks. The Messerschmitt is a small lightweight fighter and can definitely give a Spitfire a good run for the money in a slow speed turnfight and is very maneuverable below 300 mph. Especially the F's and K's hold a great sustained turn rate due to their high power/weight ratio, but even E's and G's are quite decent. The small wing area is fairly well counteracted by the leading edge slats, allowing this fighter a high max AoA and surprisingly low stall speed for it's wingloading. While the normal Bf 109's are a bit lightly armed, the G-6/RVI and K-4/RIV versions pack a heavy punch with their added gondola cannons in exchange for a decrease in speed, climb-, turn- and roll rate. The Messerscmitts have a major Akilles heel in that their elevator, rudder and aileron controls quickly become heavier with increasing airspeed. As such a Bf 109 can turn with a Spitfire below 250 mph IAS but is fairly equal to a P-51D above 300 mph IAS, and above 400 mph IAS a P-51D can easily get on the Bf 109's six. There are several accounts of German Bf 109 pilots crashing when trying to follow a British fighter in a low altitude dive due to inability of pulling out of the dive, and a known tactic used by British pilots was to roll over, dive and then pull out in order to evade a Bf 109 on their six. A Bf 109 pilot in Warbirds will do well to be ready with the elevator trim to get out of a dive or to tighten the turn in high speed dogfights. Heavier fighters will do well to keep their speed high when fighting a 'Schmitt. A Warbirds player probably needs a bit of a learning curve to get skilled in this German fighter, but the Messerschmitts are definitiely very competitive fighters that have the ability to bring down any opposition, especially with an Experten in the cockpit who knows how to manage his Bf 109's strengths and weaknesses.

--= Bf 109E-1 =--
The E-1 is lightly armed with 4x 7.92 mm MG's and has a max output of 1134 hp at 4100 ft with it's DB 601 engine. The 1.40 ata boost can be used for 1 min stints with a 2 min cooldown, while 1.30 ata can be used for 5 minutes.

--= Bf 109E-3 =--
The E-3 has an improved DB 601 engine with a better high altitude performance, and replaces the wing 7.92 mm MG's with 20 mm MG/FF cannons.

--= Bf 109E-4 =--
This version is very similar to the Bf 109E-3, but has slightly better MG/FF/M cannons instead of the MG/FF cannons of the E-3.

--= Bf 109E-4 Aa =--
The best known Bf 109E version, the E-4 Aa has the DB 601Aa engine which can produce 1212 hp at 4000 ft for 1 minute stints. There are several 1939-1940 era fighters that can turn tighter than the 109E's, but the 'Schmitts can usually outrun these opponents. Still, if on the six of a Spitfire, the Bf 109E's can keep inside it's turn for several laps. The Hurricane outturns the Bf 109E's though.

--= Bf 109F-1 =--
The F's might be the pinnacle of the Messerchmitt series and sees the wing cannons removed for a single nose cannon. The Bf 109F's and future 109's have redesigned wings with a better wing efficiency and lower drag than the E's, and can also bring a droptank. The F-1 benefits from a good power/weight ratio with the DB 601N engine capable of producing 1243 hp at 6900 ft for 5 minute stints.

--= Bf 109F-2 =--
Very similar to the F-1, but with the 20 mm cannon replaced with a 15 mm MG/151/15 cannon and 200 rounds instead of 60 rounds.

--= Bf 109F-4 =--
The best F version equipped with the even further improved DB 601E engine. It also has a 20 mm MG/151/20 cannon with 200 rounds instead of the 15 mm cannon of the F-2. The F-4 has great top speed for it's time and can turn with most 1941 era fighters at low speeds.

--= Bf 109G-2 =--
The G-2 fields the DB 605A-1 engine which has a better high alt performance than the DB 601 engine. Problems with engine reliability resulted in the G-2 being restricted to 1.30 ata though. As such it's has a better top speed above 20000 ft than the F-4, but is generally a bit more cumbersome at lower alts than the F's.

--= Bf 109G-6 =--
The G-6 has the DB 605A-1 engine like the G-2, but is cleared for use of 1.42 ata with a max output of 1529 hp at 6800 ft at 1 minute stints. It has improved armament with 2x 13 mm MG's replacing the 7.92 MG's and packs a better punch. It's a bit heavier than the F's though and slightly worse in turn fight at low alts, but is a good high alt performer.

--= Bf 109G-6/RVI =--
This is a G-6 with added gondola cannons in the wings, packing a heavy punch and is a great tool against bombers. This added firepower comes at the expense of a ~5 mph slower top speed and decreased climb-, turn- and roll rate due to the added 474 lb weight of the wing cannons.

--= Bf 109G-14 ASM =--
An improvement to the G-series, the G-14 ASM has an engine tooled for high alt performance, and more importantly can use the MW50 methanol/water injection. This allows a markedly increase in max power output and it can keep it's WEP for 10 minutes before the engine starts to overheat (total MW50 capacity is 20 minutes). This Bf 109 version is a serious threat to any opposing fighter of it's era.

--= Bf 109K-4 =--
This is the ultimate version of the Bf 109 series. An added feature is the choice of using the heavy 30 mm MK/108 cannon instead of the standard 20 mm cannon. The DB 605DC engine can produce 1988 hp at 1400 ft with MW50 injection and C3 fuel, which gives the K-4 a power/weight ratio even greater than the Spitfire XIV, and can definitely match the Spit XIV in a sustained low n' slow turn fight. The top speed matches any late war fighter below 20000 ft and if the German pilots of ww2 hadn't been constantly outnumbered 1v5 or even 1v10 in the era of the K-4, this version would probably have made a much better tally for itself. The Akilles heel of the Messerchmitts is the heavy high speed handling though, and in the 1944-1945 era where speeds are much higher than in the earlier years of ww2, this is an even more significant drawback for the K-4 pilot that often will need to try to lure the often heavier enemy fighters into a slow speed dogfight.

--= Bf 109K-4/RIV =--
Like the G-6/RVI, The K-4/RIV has added firepower from it's gondola wing cannons at the expense of top speed and agility.

---== UPDATE FL2058: NAVY BLUE ==---
--= F4U Corsair series =--
The whole F4U series has been fully remodeled. See further below for details.

--= Propdrag change =--
The amount of drag generated by the airscrew when at idle throttle or engine off has been lowered globally for all remodeled fighters. This means that the braking effect is somewhat reduced when chopping the throttle mid-air, but more importantly the fighters can glide for a longer distance (a bit closer to real life numbers) when the engine is dead.

--= Macchi C.202's and C.205 =--
The C.202 Fulgores and the C.205 Veltro have had their engines and dragcos corrected. They are all now ~8 mph slower than previously, this according to better speed data found. Also the C.205 now only has 1 minute of WEP instead of 5 min, as per Daimler-Benz 605A engine data (The C.205 used a license built DB 605 engine). Both the C.202's and the C.205 have had their climb rate slightly improved to match historical data though.

--= Fw 190 series =--
The whole Fw 190 series has now a somewhat harsher stall behavior. In real life the Fw 190's had no washout for the wings and the stall when maneuvering was very sudden and violent with nearly zero warning.

--= F6F-5 Hellcat =--
The F6F-5 has gotten a complete engine rehaul and dragco retweak. This since better engine and speed data was found when remodeling the F4U's, and the Hellcat used a near identical engine as the F4U-1D. The F6F-5 was actually just as fast as a F4U, and it's a misconception that the F6F-5 was slower. This was discovered in ww2 when Vaught lent Grumman a F4U-1 to help find out why the F6F was underperforming in speed tests, and in the trials it was found that the Hellcat could pretty much fly side by side with the Corsair at full throttle. It was simply an instruments error that had the F6F's gauges show a lower velocity than it really had. The Hellcat is now generally 5-6 mph faster than before and ~15 mph faster at WEP at low altitude. This also improves the F6F-5's sustained turning performance at the deck when using WEP, due to it's now better power/weight ratio and less drag. The 60" Water injection WEP has a total tank capacity for 14 minutes use, at 5 minutes stints.

--= The left engines are the right engines =--
A coding error has been found that affects all FM's with multiple engines. Previous programmers, far far back in time, seems to have mistakenly reversed the engine hardpoints, so if you hit the ground with the left wing, the right wing engines will take damage instead. This only affects damage from hitting the ground though and not bullet damage, which uses hitboxes to calculate damage. As this coding error does not have much impact on the game it will be fixed for each multi-engine plane one at a time when it's time for said plane to get a full rehaul of it's flightmodel. For now the P-38's have had their hardpoints corrected.

The F4U Corsairs are known for their impressive records in the Pacific theather but also made a good account of themselves over Europe. They were used by several countries even after the war. The F4U's are designed for carrier operation and are heavy birds with powerful radial engines. The stall speed is fairly high at 97 mph at 12000 lb, and the roll rate is similar to a P-51 although somewhat worse at high speeds. The Corsairs are primarily boom n zoom fighters, with 6x .50 cal machine guns, but they can turn quite sharply for a few laps at speed thanks to their thick wings and good max AoA. The controls get sluggish at very high speeds though. The F4U's have an excellent wing efficiency and retain their energy well, and the -1D and -4 can even hold a sustained turn quite fine with their good power/weight ratios. Going into low n' slow maneuvering vs nimbler opponents can be dangerous as the Corsair flightmodels now have a more realistic, and notably higher, stall speed than before. All in all the Corsairs are very potent fighters and should excel when their pilots keep the speed high and work with wingmen for boom n zoom tactics.

--= F4U-1 =--
The F4U-1 fields the Pratt & Whitney R-2800-8 engine with a power output of 2000 hp at 1750 ft. The -1 has fuel to spare and is quite heavy at 12738 lb. Against opponents of the same era this fighter is fast and does best at boom n zooming wingman tactics. The power/weight ratio is not superb so sustained turn fighting is inadvisable unless matched against the Fw 190 or P-47.

--= F4U-1A =--
The F4U-1A is 75 lb heavier than the -1, but has the R-2800-8W engine which can use water injection at 60" Hg WEP (5 min stints, 9 min total tank capacity). The max power output is as such improved to 2250 hp at 900 ft and the -1A has a 15-20 mph faster top speed than it's predecessor. The -1A can also carry a drop tank for long range operations.

--= F4U-1D =--
The F4U-1D also fields the R-2800-8W engine but carries notably less fuel and weighs in at 12086 lb, which is 726 lb lighter than the -1A. This results in a better climb rate and sustained turning ability, being fairly on par with a P-38L in a turnfight. For long range operations the -1D can carry two droptanks and also has a good variety of ground attack ordnance with rockets and heavy bombs.

--= F4U-4 =--
The F4U-4 didn't see duty until the very end of the war but was a great improvement to the Corsair series. It had full metal alloy wings to save some weight, and was equipped with the new P&W R-2800-18W engine with a four blade propeller. This beast of an engine could produce 2450 hp with water injection (5 min stints, ~11 min tank capacity). While being 337 lb heavier than the -1D, the -4 still has a better power/weight ratio at WEP and can almost challenge a C.205 Veltro in a sustained turn. The F4U-4 is ~18 mph faster than the -1D at the deck and ~60 mph faster at 26000 ft, since the -1D has a lower FTH (Full Throttle Height). The -4 can carry the same ordnance as the -1D.

--= P-38 Lightning series =--
The whole P-38 series has been fully remodeled. See further below for details.

--= Spitfires =--
* All Spitfires have had their pitch authority at high speeds slightly lowered to reduce the risk of overstressing the airframe due to the G's spiking.
* Slight PitchDiv raise to all Spitfires in order to decrease the nose bounce when pulling G's.
* The Spitfire Vb now suffers from neg G cutout like the Spit I & II. The "Miss Shilling's Orifice" wasn't standard carburetor equipment until the Vc model.
* The Spitfire IXa didn't have the Bendix-Stromberg carburetor, and as such now has the same neg G behaviour as the Spit LF Vc. (the "Miss Shillings Orifice" installment)
* Both Seafires now have the tail hook enabled.

--= N1K1-J =--
* Now has a featherable propeller (this is done automatically when the engine is turned off). This improves it's gliding distance with a dead engine due to reduced propeller drag. * Flaps dragco increased somewhat.

--= P-51 series =--
* Slight PitchDiv raise to the A-36 Apache, Mustang Mk 1, P-51B and P-51D in order to decrease the nose bounce when pulling G's.

The P-38's fought against the Axis airforces in several theaters during ww2. The Lightning really shined in the Pacific with boom n zoom tactics against the slower Japanese fighters, but even in Africa/Europe the P-38 had a positive kill-to-loss ratio. The Germans nicknamed it "Der Gabelschwanz Teufel" (The Fork-Tailed Devil). While being active in the Pacific to the end of ww2, in Europe it was phased out by Jimmy Dolittle in second half of 1944, in favour of the P-51 Mustang. The reason was mainly the fact that the Lightning had problems with a high rate of engine failures, it cost over twice the money to produce compared to a P-51 and had bad cockpit heating that was better suited for the warmer Pacific theater. The P-51 also had a longer fuel range and was faster. Some of the P-38's weaknesses, that J. Dolittle also was concerned about, is that the Lightning has a quite slow roll rate and compresses in a high speed dive due to it's aerodynamics disturbing the airflow around Mach 0.67. On the bright side the P-38 has good firepower and ammo capacity though with 4x .50 cals and 1x 20 mm cannon. These are all located in the nose so convergence isn't a problem. The two engine propellers are counter rotating and as such this fighter doesn't suffer from torque like single engine fighters do. The Lightnings also have a nice selection of ordnance and are potent in ground attack roles. A common misconseption about the Lightning is about it being an "unagile" fighter. Many people and also flightsimulators has this wrong as if the P-38 should be turning like a truck. It definitely shouldn't. The P-38 not being agile has to do with it's poor roll rate and weight, making it unsuitable for low n' slow maneuver combat like going into scissors. When it comes to turn fighting though this twin engine fighter has a good power/weight ratio and a large wing area with a 16% root thickness ratio. The long wing span also helps with induced drag and when using the combat setting at 8° for it's Fowler flaps, this bird can hold a turn quite well. It's not like a Spitfire or A6M Zero, but can definitely hold it's own against many opponents. The P-38's best envelope is as a high altitude interceptor, and as such a P-38 pilot would generally benefit from doing bomber escort or in other ways taking the fight up high. While being able to fight down low, at high altitude is where the "Fork-Tailed Devil" shines and can take it all the way up to 39000 ft.

--= P-38F =--
The P-38F is powered by the Allison V-1710-49/53 engines, producing 1225 hp each. For it's era this is the fastest American fighter above 15000 ft, and also the best climber. The turn rate is comparable to that of a C.205 Veltro or F6F-5 Hellcat. The firepower is good and it's a great fighter for boom n zooming while also able to turn a few laps with the bandit. Avoid low n' slow maneuver fights though as the roll rate is poor and it's a heavy bird. A wise Lightning pilot fights the enemies between 20000-39000 ft.

--= P-38G =--
The P-38G is very similar to the P-38F but 120 lb lighter and can run at 41" of manifold pressure for a longer time with it's V-1710-51/55 engines. It has the same max power of 1225 hp though. An important difference is that the P-38G can use an 8° combat flaps setting which improves the Lightning's turn rate quite a bit.

--= P-38J =--
The J-version had notably improved engines, the Allison V-1710-89/91, capable of producing 1570 hp. It has a slightly higher drag but is 10-13 mph faster than it's predecessors. Also the climb rate is improved due to it's better power/weight ratio. The weight is around 833 lb heavier than the P-38G though and while being able to turn well, it holds a somewhat larger turning radius. The P-38J can use rockets for attacking ground targets which is a nice addition. The service ceiling is around 40000 ft.

--= P-38L =--
While being the heaviest of the Lightnings, weighing in at 18055 lb, the P-38L has several improvements. The most significant one is the power boosted ailerons. This gives the P-38L a much needed increase to the roll rate at high speeds, and also a slight improvement at lower speeds. The code does not allow for modelling the historical special designed dive flaps of the P-38L, but the flightmodel is instead able to dive 20 mph faster before compression occurs. The L-version's V-1710-111/113 engines are very similar to the P-38J engines and also able to produce 1570 hp. The ordnance is even more enhanced with the P-38L able to carry 2x 2000 lb bombs, making it very effective for jabo missions.

--= Spitfire series =--
The whole Spitfire series has been remodeled. See below for details.

--= Brand new airplanes added =--
Several new planes have been built and added to the Warbirds roster. These are the: Yak-9U, Mosquito NF.30, Mosquito B.XVI (bomber), Seafire III and the Hurricane I *87 octane (pre Battle of Britain version limited to +6.25 lbs of boost). Also one of the two Spitfire Mk I's has been converted into an 87 octane pre BoB version. See below for details.

--= P-47D series =--
* All Jugs now have two internal selectable fuel tanks to simulate their internal main- and auxiliary tanks, which were fully separate from each other in real life. The fuel tanks are placed next to each other though so a good burst to the belly could damage both of them.
* Hitmaps have been fully revamped and are now more accurate.
* Minor fix to wing efficiency: 0.91 instead of 0.93.
* Control-delay set to normal values.

--= Yak series =--
* Aileron/elevator control effectiveness, in relation to airspeed, has been tweaked.

--= Sea Hurricane Ib =--
Slight rebuild of the Sea Hurricane's engine setup. Also the bomb loadout option has been removed.

--= Lancaster series =--
The stall speed has been lowered by 10 mph for both Lancasters.

--= Skins =--
Skins have been changed/updated/added for the: Hurricane I, Hurricane Ia, Seafire IIc, Seafire III, Spitfire IXa, Spitfire LF IXe, Spitfire XIVe, Mosquito NF.30, Mosquito B.XIV, Yak-9U, MiG-15. (Also a few sound fixes to some of these flightmodels).

--== THE NEW MOSQUITO NF.30 ==--
This "Wooden wonder" late war version used the two stage Merlin 72 engines which, compared to the NF.II's engines, improved the flight envelope by around 10 000 ft. The NF.30 has a full throttle height (FTH) at 25000 ft. This intruder nightfighter is armed with 4x 20 mm Hispano cannons with 175 rpg.

The B.XVI also used the two stage Merlin 72 engines and was a fast and potent high altitude bomber for hit n' run attacks. It has a large selection of loadouts which gives it great versatility for different bombing missions.

--== THE NEW YAK-9U ==--
While the Yak-3 and Yak-9D might look similar, the Yak-3 was a significantly smaller aircraft both in shape, wing area and weight compared to the Yak-9D. The Yak-3 was more agile, faster and climbed better while the Yak-9D had more fuel for long range missions. They both used the Klimov VK-105PF engine but the Yak-3 used a version of it which allowed for a better max boost. The late war Yakovlev version, the Yak-9U was based on the heavier Yak-9D but used a much improved Klimov VK-107a engine, producing 1650 hp at 1st FTH compared to the 1300 hp of the Yak-3. The -9U is 12 mph faster at sea level (366 mph) and 33 mph faster at 15000 ft (415 mph). This 1945 Yakovlev version was considered the best in the series, and while being heavier than the Yak-3, the stronger powerplant of the Yak-9U actually gives it a better power/weight ratio and it can as such hold a sustained turn right on par with the -3. The armament consists of 2x 12.7 mm MG's and 1x 20 mm cannon with fairly short clips, but the Yak-9U is an excellent climber, agile and quite fast. It is best used below 13000 ft. It is also competetive in a sustained turn vs other late war fighters altough it's small wings result in a fairly large turn radius and high stall speed compared to several other fighters of the same size. All in all though it is able to counter it's ww2 adversaries, the FW 190 and Bf 109, quite well.

In every aspect like the normal Hurricane I, except that this is a pre Battle of Britain version running on 87 octane fuel. As such it is limited +6.25 lbs of boost (no +12 lbs WEP). This FM is primarily intended to be used for S3's.

The Spitfires are all potent interceptors, generally having a very good power/weight ratio across the range. They are also fast for their respective eras, and thanks to their elliptical wing shape their wings have a wing efficiency superior to fighters of more rectangular wing geometry. The wings have only a root thickness ratio of 13% though, resulting in a low max AoA allowance. This hampers the Spitfires turning radius, and also results in a slightly worse stall speed than for planes of similiar wingloading. The Spitfires have excellent all around vision though are quite forgiving in the stall. A drawback is that all later marks in the series have relatively short ammo clips.

--= Spitfire I =--
The Mk.I became famous in the Battle of Britain. While there are some early war fighters that can turn inside it, the Spit I is still very competitive in a turn fight. This coupled with an excellent top speed and 8x .303 cal Mg's makes it a dangerous opponent. It's drawback is that the Merlin III engine loses in performance above 15000 ft. A good tactic for nimble opponents is to engage the Spitfire in scissors or keep inside it's turning radius in high speed turns, although the Spitfire can often find a way to beat it's enemy when flown by a wise pilot.

--= Spitfire I *87 octane =--
This version is in every aspect like the normal Mk. I, except that it is a pre-BoB version and limited to +6.25 lbs of boost.

--= Spitfire II =--
The Mk. II is equipped with the Merlin XII engine, rated at 1302 hp at 14300 ft. It has a similar max boost as the Merlin III up to 9000 ft, but has an improved high altitude performance. The Spit II also has more base BHP when flown at cruise or climb power, meaning that it's faster and climbs better than the Spit I when not in WEP. The Mk.II gave the English pilots a well needed boost in high altitude performance against the German BF 109E's.

--= Spitfire Vb =--
Upgraded with the Merlin 45 engine, the Mk.Vb saw an additional 200 hp increase. This version has had the 8x .303 cals exhanged for 4x .303 cals and 2x 20 mm cannons (60 rpg), which gives it a better punch although the pilot needs to conserve the cannon ammo for sure shots. The Spit Vb is a little heavier than the Mk.II, but the better engine makes up for it regarding power/weight ratio. While being good improvements for the Spitfire series, the Mk.V's faced a dangerous opponent in the Fw 190A during ww2. The Spitfires can easily turn inside it, but the superior speed of the Focke Wulf allows the German pilots to dictate the battle. Against all other opponents the Spitfire Vb can mix it well in a dogfight.

--= Spitfire LF Vc =--
The LF Vb has the Merlin 45M engine. The "LF" prefix indicates that it's engine is tooled for low altitude performance, and it's 10 mph faster at sea level than the Mk.Vb. Above 7000 ft though the Vb has a clearly superior performance, and the LF Vc is almost 30 mph slower at 15000 ft. A big advantage with the LF Vc is it's increased cannon ammo load, with 240 rounds compared to the 120 rounds of the Vb.

--= Spitfire IXa =--
Taking to the skies in mid 1942, the Spitfire IX series was Great Britains answer to the German FW 190's. The IXa has an improved powerplant, with it's Merlin 61 engine producing 1525 hp at 15400 ft. While being fairly equal to the Merlin 45 in max output at lower altitudes, it has a two stage supercharger with a much better high altitude performance. The Spit V is probably the better fighter for low n slow dogfighting, as it has equal max power and a lower weight, but for high altitude missions the Spit IXa is clearly the superior interceptor.

--= Spitfire LF IXe =--
The LF IXe was a great improvement to the Supermarine series, and by many considered as one of the best fighters of it's era. The Merlin 66 engine was a work of art and could juice out 1742 hp at 9400 ft, and was impressive for a mid 1943 inline engine. The LF IXe could reach around 375 mph at 9400 ft and 406 mph at 21000 ft, which was equal to the Fw 190A-8, altough the Fw 190A-8 was faster at sea level. The LF IXe also has an improved armament with 2x .50 cals replacing the 4x .303 cals of the IXa. This fighter has great speed for it's era, can pack a punch and outturn nearly every single 1943 fighter thanks to it's low wing loading, great power/weight ratio and the high wing efficiency of it's eliptically shaped wings. It is certainly a fighter that can be flown with confidence in nearly every match-up.

--= Spitfire XIVe =--
Being powered by the Rolls-Royce Griffon 65 engine and using 150 grade fuel, the Mk. XIVe had an output of an astounding 2200 hp at 9700 ft, which was nearly unequalled in WW2. This fighter is not a beast but rather a monster. When using it's +21 lbs WEP the Spitfire XIVe can run like a P-51D, climb with the very best and hold a sustained turn better than all other late war fighters. This will probably be a popular choice for those players who want to suddenly improve their "skill" level. When flying at normal power or climb power though, the Spitfire XIVe has a power output similar to the LF IXe, and since the XIVe is heavier, the LF IXe is actually a better performer out of WEP. A smart pilot will know to manage the engine temperature though and have the +21 lbs WEP at hand when needed. Pilots facing the Spitfire XIVe can outfly it in scissors if in a nimbler plane, but should avoid a 1v1 turn fight with it. Also if flying with others then using wingman tactics can prevent the XIVe pilot from making it a pure turn fight. The main drawback of the Spitfire XIVe was it's fuel range, although this will usually only be a real issue in the S3 events.

--= Seafire IIc =--
The Seafire IIc is in every respect a naval carrier based version of the Spitfire LF Vc, also fielding the Merlin 45M engine. The notable difference is that the Seafire IIc is 532 lb heavier due to additional naval equipment. It is a very good carrier fighter for interception duty.

--= Seafire III =--
The Seafire III uses the same engine as the Mk. IIc, although it's even heavier than it's predecessor due to the new folding wings mechanism, which was introduced in order to save deck space aboard carriers. The Seafire III has a wide range of loadout options though which makes it better for supporting strike missions.

--= FL2053 --=
--= De Havilland Mosquito VI =--
Complete rehaul of the Mosquito VI fighter by Bollok. See below for details.

--= Hawker Hurricane series =--
Complete rehaul of all the Hawker Hurricanes and the Sea Hurricane. See below for more info.

--= Dive speeds =--
All max dive speed limits have been increased by 8% for all fighters (Except the Spitfires series as they are currently being worked on). This change was made in order to better simulate the actual speed where a ww2 fighter would take damage compared to the max permissible speed as stated in it's flight manual. The stated Mach limit at 10000 ft is used as a base for all fighters. A few examples:
Plane: Old limit - New limit
P-51D: 480 mph --> 518 mph
Fw 190A: 466 mph --> 503 mph
Fw 190D: 510 mph --> 551 mph
N1K1-J: 495 mph --> 535 mph

--= Lancaster series =--
* The Lanc3 wingman not dropping the GSLAM bomb issue has been fixed.
* The position of the GSLAM bomb has been adjusted.
* Max dive speed increased by 8%.

--= Mosquito IV and NFII =--
* Revision of the flaps pitching effect for a more accurate performance.
* Max dive speed increased by 8%.

--= Skins =--
New skins for the Mosquito IV and NFII by Bollok, and new skins for the Heinkel He-111 by Iart7.

The Mosquitos or "Wooden Wonders" were built mainly out of wood and proved to be of a superb design in ww2. The Mk VI version was a further improvement that fielded the newer Rolls Royce Merlin 25 engines. While being slightly slower than previous Mosquito versions at base power, the use of 150 grade fuel for +25 lbs boost below 13000 ft results in approximately a 23 mph higher top speed at low altitude. The Mosquito VI is also somewhat heavier as it carries more internal fuel. This is a sleek, fast tactical fighter/bomber often able to get in to target and out unscathed. It can also be used as a strong gun platform in boom n zoom air to air combat and is fairly agile for it's size.

The Hurricanes are well known for their decisive role in the Battle of Britain, and for participating in nearly every theater of ww2. This airplane was designed with a 19% wing thickness ratio at the wing root, which is quite unique for a ww2 fighter. This was due to early British small scale tests showing that the thickness ratio had no effect on an airplanes top speed, an assumption which was later found to be incorrect. The drag from the thick wings takes a toll on the Hawker's top speed, but on the other hand results in quite a low stall speed for it's wingloading. The Hurricane also has a great max AoA performance as such, meaning it can hold a tighter high speed turn than most fighters and even keep inside a Spitfire in a consistent turn, even though the Hawker is heavier than the Spit. This ability was put to good use against the Messerschmitts in the Battle of Britain. Generally the Hurricanes excel as turn fighters while boasting good armament.

--= Hurricane I =--
The Mk I is powered by the Merlin III engine just like the Spitfire Mk I. This single stage engine can produce 1305 hp at 9000 ft. While the Spitfire is faster, the Hurricane has a tighter turning circle. The 8x .303 cals are also quite decent for the early era. This is a purebred fighter aircraft and definitely competitive against contemporary fighters. An enemy pilot underestimating the turn radius of the Hawker will very soon experience hundreds of small calibre bullets riddling his airplane.

--= Sea Hurricane Ib =--
The navy version is 246 lb heavier than the land based Mk I, but it's Merlin III is tooled for better WEP performance at low altitudes. The Sea Hurricane can also carry 2x 250 lb bombs or drop tanks. Otherwise it's very similiar to the normal Hurricane I, and it's quite agile for a navy fighter.

--= Hurricane IIb =--
The Mk II's are all powered by the Merlin XX engine, which has a two speed supercharger capable of approximately 1470 hp at 7000 ft and 1440 hp at 13500 ft. While being significantly heavier than the Mk I, the Mk II's are still excellent turn fighters but lack in top speed against contemporary fighters. With top speeds constantly increasing during ww2 the thick wings of the Hurricanes were slowly becoming an achilles heel, and as such the Hawkers were commonly used as fighter bombers, a role in which they performed quite well. The Mk IIb carries 12x .303 cals which allow a decent bite against other fighters and are great for strafing ground structures.

--= Hurricane IIc =--
The Mk IIc is 312 lb heavier than the IIb, but is armed by 4x 20 mm cannons. As such it packs a heavy punch against both fighters and bombers. While most fighters can easily boom n zoom against the Hurricane IIc in a tactical fight, the Hurricane IIc pilot can cut a swath if joining a low n slow furball, using the tight turning ability and heavy firepower to it's full potential.

--= Hurricane IId =--
The IId is a heavier anti-tank version armed with 2x 40 mm cannons. This version is not well suited for dogfighting but instead excel against enemy tanks. In the African theatre this version was very successful against German tanks and it's pilots often painted a can opener on the fuselage. The Russians also loved the Hurricane Mk IId as a ground support fighter.

The Fw190A-1, A-2, A-4, A-8, F-8 and D-9 have all been fully remodeled according to extensive research of historical data. They now turn better than before and should hit historical performance more accurately. See further down for more detailed info.

The A-36, Mustang Mk I, P-51B and P-51D have all been fully remodeled according to extensive research of historical data. The snappy stall issue has now been fully fixed and they should hit their historical performance very well. All Mustang versions now also follow the same law of physics. See further down for more detailed info.

The P-47C, P-47D-22 and P-47D-25 have all been fully remodeled according to extensive research of historical data. They are now properly gaining from having eliptical low induced dragco wings and are no longer the E-bleed hogs they've been before. They actually retain their energy very well for being 13 000 lb beasts and are now great for high altitude fighting, dive bombing and can now properly outdive any opponent. See further down for more detailed info.

42 flightmodels had extreme liftco numbers modeled to their flaps, with the same liftco value no matter the flaps angle. This lowered their stall speed by 13-20 mph even at combat flaps, which also resulted in an unrealistically enhanced turning performance. These flightmodels have now been retweaked to have a more realistic flaps performance with the liftco scaling with flaps angle. They will still certainly benefit from deploying combat flaps in a turn fight, altough the effect is not as dramatic as before. Flaps wise they will now compete on the same terms and using the same laws of physics as all the other fighters. The flightmodels affected by this global change are:

Bf 109's, Bf 110's, Fokker DXXI, F4U's, F6F-5, Hawker Typhoon, Hurricane I and IIB, J2M's, Ki-43, Ki-44 Ki-61's, Ki-84, Macchi's, MiG-3, N1k1, P-38's, Sea Hurricane, Fw 190's, P-47's, P-51's.

-= Ki-43 =-
Weight upped to 5500 lb, up from 5085,8 lb

-= BF 109's =-
elevator trim 0.20, up from 0.15
Rudder trim 0.05, up from 0.04
aileron trim 0.07, up from 0.05
The Bf 109K's and Bf 109G-14 now have 10 minutes MW50 injection WEP time instead of 5 minutes. The total WEP avaliable per sortie is 20 minutes.

Negative G limit increased to fix wing break issue. Was previously set to low.

-= F6F-5 =-
Stall behaviour remodeled. Stall is no longer as harsh.

-= New engine sound and various engine/weapon sound fixes =-
Fw 190 series, a36, P-51mk1

In general the Fw 190's are potent boom n zoom fighters and not turn fighters since they have a very high stall speed of 110 mph IAS at 9420 lb. The Fw 190's have great all around pilot visibility and are at their best in the low-mid altitude range but have poor performance above 25 000 ft. They all have good speed for their respective eras and roll exceptionally well. A wise pilot makes good use of this. Be careful as the stall comes with little warning so it's dangerous to fly on the verge of stall (the Fw 190's didn't have washout for the wings). They can all use combat flaps below 250 mph IAS and the A-8, F-8 and D-9 has the Mw50 injection WEP option. While a P-51D is faster at most altitudes at WEP, it can only use it's WEP for a few minutes while the late Fw 190's can run their WEP for 10 minutes. This makes them great for prolonged fighting. Their heavy armament makes them suitible for attacking bomber formations.

FW 190A-1
The A-1 is the earliest version of the Fw 190's in Warbirds. It has weaker firepower and is somewhat slower than the A-2, but a bit lighter and as such turns tighter.

Fw 190A-2
An improved version of the A-1. A bit heavier but with a more powerful engine and 20 mm cannons.

Fw 190A-4
Similiar to the A-2 but with the biggest difference that the A-4 can carry bombs and a droptank due to wingrack upgtrades, while the earlier versions are restricted to guns only. The A-4 engine was supposed to be albe to use the MW50 engine injection but logistical problems ment the Fw 190's didn't see this invention until the A-8 versions. As such the A-4 is restricted to normal WEP.

Fw 190A-8
A distinctively heavier variant of the Fw 190s with better armor. The A-8 can carry more ordnance than the A-4 due to an even further improved wing structure and also have the "Sturmbock" option. The A-8 can use the Mw50 injection. This greatly improves the War emergency power by nearly 200 BHP compared to the A-4 and allows it to be run for 10 minute stints due to the cooling effect of the Water/methanol injection. This Fw 190 version is the best for attacking bomber formations.

Fw 190F-8
The F-8 is similiar to the A-8, but it has a weaker guns loadout and instead a better arsenal of ground attack options. It has the MW50 injection.

Fw 190D-9
The D-9 has an inline engine instead of a radial engine, and can also use the MW50 injection. This means it cannot sustain oil leaks as well as it's radial engine fitted brothers, but instead has a top speed that clearly offsets any such disadvantage. The D-9 version is great for boom n zoom fighter tactics and can even outrun a Mustang below 5000 ft and between 14 000-16 000 ft.

-= p-51's FULL REMODELING =-
In general the P-51's are very fast hit n run fighters due to their laminar wings and great high speed aerodynamical design. The early P-51s are best at low/mid altitudes and has poor high altitude performance. The later versions excel as high altitude fighters/escorts and has great range. They can turn a few laps with other fighters at high speed but should avoid any low n slow turn fighting due to their laminar wings. The short military and WEP time limits means that you need to monitor your engine temperature and sometimes extend to cool down the engine before returning to the fray.

Mustang Mk1
This early Mustang is a British high speed interceptor at it's best at mid altitudes. Few fighters of the same era can match it's speed at this altitude range. Avoid fighting at higher altitudes.

The American version of the Mustang Mk1 is the fighter-bomber version of the early P-51's. It comes equiped with dive brakes and excels in it's role as a tactical ground striker. It has greatly improved speed below 6000 ft which means it can outrun any fighter of the same era at sea level, but it suffers at mid-high altitudes.

The P-51B has an improved roll rate compared to the earlier Mustangs and greatly increased high altitude performance. It can climb to 42 000+ ft. This plane has great range and excels as a high altitude interceptor/escort fighter.

The best version of the P-51's in Warbirds. This Pony can use 72" WEP and is among the top fastest, if not the fastest fighter in the sim (depending on altitude). It is great at high altitudes and has improved firepower with 6x 0.50 cal MG's. Another important upgrade compared to the other Mustangs is it's bubble canopy which allows for a great 360° view.

These large Thunderbolts with radial engines are great planes for dive bombing and strafing with their 8x 0.50 cals, but do not take them for low altitude fighters. Their low altitude top speed performance is quite mediocre for later war planes and when it comes to dogfighting they rather excel above 25 000 ft. Above this altitude they are superb interceptors/escorts/bomber formation attackers and they can climb to 42 000 ft just like the P-51's. While their turn rate is somewhat better than one would expect, they have a very large turning radius so avoid any low n slow business. The Jugs have eliptical wings and as such great energy retention for their weight so you can turn a bit without loosing to much speed, then extend and repeat the boom n zooming. One of their best defensive tactics is that they can outdive other enemy propeller planes. Use this to your advantage when being jumped. The P-47's also roll fairly well at speeds below 300 mph.

The early version of the Thunderbolts. It's a quite potent and fast plane for it's era but suffers from bad razorback rear vision. It is very well armed though and can tear enemy fighters and bombers apart alike with it's 8x .50 cals. Just like it's late war counterparts it excels at high altitudes. This is especially true vs earlier era planes. The P-47C climb rate isn't great so keep it level in a fight.

A better version of the P-47C. It has military power and can use Water injection WEP which greatly adds to the BHP the engine can produce. As with the P-47C, avoid low altitude fighting if possible.

The best P-47 version in Warbirds. Very simliar to the P-47D-22 but carries 65 gal extra internal fuel and has a bubble canopy which allows for great all around pilot vision. This bird competes to be one of the best high altitude escort fighters/interceptors of the war for shorter bombing missions, as it's fuel consumption is to high to fit the "deep strikes into Berlin" like the P-51D can. In the Main Arena though the fuel range should be no problem.


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